Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Strabismus surgery unties or tightens eye muscles, which changes the arrangement of the eyes relative to each other the eye muscles attach to the sclera. The muscles are covered by a thin layer of transparent tissue called the conjunctiva. The eyelids are held open by a minor instrument called a lid speculum. The surgeon cuts the conjunctiva to access the eye muscle and uses a delicate hook to isolate the muscle. No skin cuts are made. The eyeball is NOT removed from the eye socket during strabismus surgery.

Strabismus surgery involves sewing the eye muscle to the wall of the eye after altering the insertion position and/or the length of the muscle. Standard strabismus surgery utilizes a permanent knot. Adjustable suture technique employs a bow-knot or slip-knot (temporary knot) in an accessible position. After surgery, the eye alignment can be altered by adjusting the temporary knot. The adjustment is typically done with the patient awake and the operated eye numbed, so adjustable suture surgery generally may only be offered to patients who are able to fully cooperate with the adjustment process.

If any individual have a refractive error, like near-sightedness (myopia), ametropia (hyperopia), astigmatism or hypermetropia, refractive surgery could be a methodology for correcting or raising your vision. There are varied surgical procedures for correcting or adjusting your eye's focusing ability by reshaping the membrane, or clear, spherical dome at the front of your eye. Alternative procedures involve implanting a lens within your eye. The foremost wide performed sort of refractive surgery is LASIK (laser-assisted in place keratomileusis), wherever a optical device is employed to reshape the membrane. Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery wont to improve the refractive state of the attention and reduce or eliminate dependency on glasses or contact lenses. This could embrace varied strategies of surgical remodelling of the membrane (keratomileusis), lens implantation or lens replacement (cataract surgery). The foremost common strategies these days use excimer lasers to reshape the curvature of the membrane. Victorious refractive eye surgery will cut back or cure common vision disorders like short-sightedness, ametropia and astigmatism, furthermore as chronic disorders like astigmia.

Most sorts of vision correction surgery reshape your membrane, the clear front a part of your eye. That lets lightweight travel through it and focus properly on the rear of your eye, or retina. Alternative procedures replace your eye’s natural lens.


• PRK, or photorefractive




• Phakic lens system implants

• AK or LRI

The tissue layer is that the photosensitive layer of tissue that lines the within of the attention and sends visual messages through the second cranial nerve to the brain. once the tissue layer detaches, it's raised or force from its traditional position. If not promptly treated, detached retina will cause permanent vision loss. In some cases there could also be little square measureas of the tissue layer that are torn. These areas, known as retinal tears or retinal breaks will result in detached retina. Here square measure 3 differing types of retinal detachment:

•                    Rhegmatogenous [reg-ma-TAH-jenous]—A tear or break within the tissue layer permits fluid to induce below the tissue layer and separate it from the retinal pigment epithelial tissue (RPE), the   pigmented cell layer that nourishes the tissue layer. These varieties of retinal detachments square measure the foremost common.

•                    Tractional—In this kind of detaent, connective tissue on the tissue layer's surface contracts and causes the retina to break away the RPE. this type of detachment is a smaller amount common.

•                    Exudative—Frequently caused by retinal diseases, as well as inflammatory disorders and injury/trauma to the attention. during this sort, fluid leaks into the world beneath the tissue layer, but there aren't any tears or breaks within the tissue layer


The diabetic disease may be a cluster of eye issues that may have an effect on individuals with the polygenic disorder. These conditions embrace diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular lump, cataracts, and eye disease. Over time, polygenic disorder will cause harm to your eyes that may cause poor vision or perhaps visual disorder. However, you'll take steps to forestall diabetic disease or keep it from obtaining worse, by taking care of your polygenic disorder. Four Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy, According to the National Eye Institute, diabetic retinopathy has four stages:

•          Mild non-proliferative retinopathy: At this early stage, little areas of balloon-like swelling occur within the retina's small blood vessels.

•          Moderate non-proliferative retinopathy: because the malady progresses, some blood vessels that nourish the membrane become blocked.

•          Severe non-proliferative retinopathy: more blood vessels become blocked, that disrupts the blood provide that nourishes the membrane. The broken membrane then signals the body to provide new blood vessels.

•          Proliferative retinopathy: At this advanced stage, signals sent by the membrane trigger the event of latest blood vessels that grow (or proliferate) within the membrane and therefore the vitreous, that may be a clear gel that fills the inside of the attention. as a result of these new blood vessels square measure abnormal, they will rupture and bleed, inflicting hemorrhages within the membrane or vitreous. Connective tissue will develop and might tug at the membrane, inflicting any harm or perhaps detachment of the retina own body.

  1. Ocular injuries/ Eye Trauma

Ocular trauma is second only to amblyopia as a cause of visual loss in the pediatric population. Injuries most commonly occur in adolescent boys while playing sports, the most dangerous being baseball and basketball. The approach to a pediatric patient may be different from that of an adult for several reasons. The history is often unreliable or unavailable and the mechanism of injury may be unknown. Examination of an injured eye can be challenging and almost impossible in the face of an inconsolable patient with an injured eye. The visual system is often immature, thus necessitating effort to restore visual development.3 Four basic principles should be adhered to when caring for a child with ocular trauma: management of life-threatening or central nervous system injury should always take precedence, structural integrity of the eyeball must be ensured, vision should be checked in both the injured and uninjured eye, and ophthalmologic consultation is an important resource.            

  • Ptosis: Congenital ptosis is often due to a malformation or lack of training of the muscle responsible for lifting the upper eyelid, the levator palpebrae superioris muscle.T he functions of the eyelid lifter must be measured. At the same time, the patient looks downwards at most with his eyes and then turns his gaze to a maximum. In doing so, the ophthalmologist measures the difference between the upper edge of the lid when looking down and looking up while blocking the frontal muscle so that it does not distort the result. In the Simpson test, the patient looks up for 60 seconds, which also lifts the eyelid.
  • Myasthenia gravis: Myasthenia Gravis is a chronic neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness and rapid fatigue of skeletal muscle. Mostly, the muscle strength improves significantly by a short rest. The muscle weakness is due to a disruption of the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscle cells.


Graves' disease, conjointly referred to as thyroid disease, is associate reaction condition that during immune cells attacks the thyroid which response by secreting associate excess quantity of hormone. As a result, the thyroid enlarges and excess hormones increase metabolism. The hypermetabolic state is characterized by quick pulse/heartbeat, palpitations, abundant sweating, high vital sign, irritability, fatigue, weight loss, heat intolerance, and loss of hair and alterations in hair quality. Once the system attacks the tissues around the eyes, it causes the attention muscles or fat to expand.

The eyes are notably prone to Graves' disease; as a result of the reaction attack typically targets the attention muscles and animal tissue among the attention socket. This seemingly happens as results of these tissues contain proteins that seem just like the system as those of the thyroid. Ocular symptoms will vary from delicate to severe; however solely 10-20% of patients have the sight-threatening sickness. Another tissue which will even be concerned with the immune attack of Graves' disease is that the skin of the shins.

The complex body part is that the middle layer of the attention that contains abundant of the eye’s blood vessels. This is often a technique that inflammatory cells can enter the attention. Situated between the albuginea, the eye’s white outer coat, and also the inner layer of the attention, known as the tissue layer, the complex body part consists of the iris, membrane, and choroid:


·                     Iris: the colored circle at the front of the attention. It defines eye color, secretes nutrients to stay the lens healthy, and controls the quantity of sunshine that enters the attention by adjusting the scale of the pupil.

·                     Ciliary Body: it's situated between the iris and also the tissue layer. It helps the attention focus by dominant the form of the lens and it provides nutrients to stay the lens healthy.

·                     Choroid: a skinny, spongy network of blood vessels, that primarily provides nutrients to the tissue layer.

·                     Uveitis disrupts vision by primarily inflicting issues with the lens, retina, nervus opticus, and vitreous.

·                     Lens: clear tissue that enables lightweight into the attention.

·                     Retina: The layer of cells on the rear, within a part of the attention that converts lightweight into electrical signals sent to the brain.

·                     Optic Nerve: A bundle of nerve fibers that transmits electrical signals from the tissue layer to the brain.

·                     Vitreous: The fluid crammed house within the attention.

Glaucoma and ocular surface illness are usually concomitant disorders (OSD is that the consequence of a tear film disfunction which will flow from to many conditions). The aims of the paper are to recommend a sequence of diagnostic tests simple to perform in daily apply, each subjective and objective, to observe the onset of the OSD; and, second, to propose the way to stop and, if the case, the way to manage the OSD. Briefly, tear film break-up time (TF-BUT) and corneal/conjunctiva staining are instructed to observe the most signs of OSD. In terms of medical care, the semi-permanent exposure to benzalkonium chloride (BAK) ought to be minimized, preferring non-BAK-preserved or BAK-free eye disease medications, wherever offered, in addition as fastened combos. The treatment of associated diseases of the anterior surface could scale back signs; use of non-BAK-preserved tears could scale back symptoms. Ocular surface disease is glaucoma, BAK, preservative-free, TF-BUT, membrane staining, eye disease symptom scale

Ocular Inflammation is inflammation of the complex body part, the Center layer of your eye. The attention is formed very similar to a ball, with 3 totally different layers of tissue encompassing a central gel-filled cavity.

The innermost layer is that the membrane, that senses light-weight and helps to send pictures to your brain. The Center layer between the sclerotic coat and membrane is named the complex body part. The outer layer is that the sclerotic coat, the robust white wall of the attention.

Ocular Inflammation may be a serious status that will scar the attention. you wish to possess it treated as presently as attainable. Eye drops, particularly steroids and pupil dilators, will scale back inflammation and pain. For additional severe inflammation, oral medication or injections is also necessary.

Uveitis will have these complications:

• Eye disease (increased pressure within the eye)

      • Cataract (clouding of the eye's natural lens)

• Neovascularization (growth of recent, abnormal blood vessels)

Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual change, and vision maintenance in children. Pediatric ophthalmologists focus on the development of the visual system and the various diseases that disrupt visual development in children. Pediatric ophthalmologists also have expertise in managing the various ocular diseases that affect children. Pediatric ophthalmologists are qualified to perform complex eye surgery as well as to manage children's eye problems using glasses and medications. Many ophthalmologists and other physicians refer pediatric patients to a pediatric ophthalmologist for examination and management of ocular problems due to children's unique needs. In addition to children with obvious vision problems, children with head turn, head tilts, squinting of the eyes, or preferred head postures are typically referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist for evaluation. Pediatric ophthalmologists typically also manage adults with eye movement disorders due to their knowledge of strabismus conditions.

A medical robot is a robot used in the medical sciences. They include surgical robots. These are in most telemanipulators, which use the surgeon's actions on one side to control the "effector" on the other side. The Robotic Retinal Dissection Device, known as R2D2, allows surgeons to make minuscule incisions, shift membranes as small as a hundredth of a millimeter thick, and perform other incredibly precise maneuvers on patients' eyes using "a joystick and a camera feed." The device was designed in part to eliminate tremors in a surgeon's hand, and last September 2017 doctors at Oxford University used R2D2 to perform the first-ever operation via robot inside a human eye.

Robots are already common in operating rooms, "but until now surgical robots have been too bulky to be used in certain procedures" on such a small scale.

Phthalmic Oncology explores the unique aspects of oncologic ophthalmology as a medical and surgical discipline practiced at a comprehensive cancer center. Multi-disciplinary management of ocular, orbital and adnexal cancers are highlighted using simple and tried-and-true algorithms. In addition, ocular problems caused as a direct result of cancer treatment are reviewed using illustrative photographs and case presentations.

The macula is the central part of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. The retina processes all visual images. It is responsible for your ability to read, recognise faces, drive and see colours clearly. You are reading this computer screen using your macula. Macular Degeneration (MD) causes progressive macular damage resulting in loss of central vision but the peripheral vision is not affected. There are two types of MD, dry and wet.   Dry MD results in a gradual loss of central vision.  Wet MD is characterised by a sudden loss of vision caused by abnormal blood vessels growing under the retina. Immediate medical treatment of wet MD is essential if symptoms occur. Aside from increasing age over 50 years, MD is thought to be caused by genetic and environmental factors.

If you smoke or have a family history of MD, your risk of developing the disease is much greater.

Other risk factors include diet and lifestyle.

The fields of ophthalmic imaging and with focus on most commonly used imaging modalities. Ophthalmic imaging has progressive so much that its role has shifted from simple photographic documentation of the condition to a powerful and advanced investigation method enabling clinicians to make objective measurements and assessments of the structures and details of the eye unavailable to conventional clinical examination using ophthalmoscopy. Very quickly the progress in imaging techniques has been translated into a better understanding of the eye in health and disease, revealing new, previously undiagnosed conditions, a more detailed description of disease phenotype and providing an objective tool to evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatments. The most commonly used ophthalmic imaging modalities with an emphasis on recent developments in imaging techniques and clinical applications.

·        Colour fundus photography

·        Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography

·        Paediatric fundus imaging

·        Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

·        Optical coherence tomography

·        Clinical applications of posterior segment OCT

·        FAF imaging

·        Advance in anterior segment imaging

·        Anterior segment OCT

·        Other posterior segment OCT applications

·        Vitreo retinal interface abnormalities

·        Retinal vascular occlusions

Oculoplastic Surgery, also known as Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive, Oculofacial or Eye Plastic Surgery, is a surgical subspecialty of Ophthalmology that deals with the medical and surgical management of deformities and abnormalities of the eyelids, lacrimal system, orbit and the adjacent face. An Oculoplastic Surgeon is an Ophthalmologist who has completed additional advanced training in plastic surgery as it relates to the eyes and surrounding structures.

·        Blepharoplasty (Eyelid Surgery)

·        Upper Blepharoplasty

·        Lower Blepharoplasty

·         Lower eyelid blepharoplasty

·         Ptosis Repair

·        Ectropion Repair

·        Ectropion Eyelid Growths and Skin Cancers

·        Tearing Disorders

Vitrectomy is a type of eye surgery used to treat disorders of the retina (the light-sensing cells at the back of the eye) and vitreous (the clear gel-like substance inside the eye). It may be used to treat a severe eye injury, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachments, epiretinal membrane (macular pucker), and macular holes. This procedure is performed in the operating room. During a vitrectomy operation, the surgeon makes tiny incisions in the sclera (the white part of the eye). Using a microscope to look inside the eye and microsurgical instruments, the surgeon removes the vitreous and repairs the retina through these tiny incisions. Repairs include removing scar tissue or a foreign object if present. During the procedure, the retina may be treated with a laser to reduce future bleeding or to fix a tear in the retina. An air or gas bubble that slowly disappears on its own may be placed in the eye. This bubble holds the retina in place as it re-attaches to the back of your eye. With time, the bubble disappears and is replaced with your normal eye fluid.


You must keep your head facing downward or turned to a particular side for up to several weeks after surgery so that the bubble will remain in the right position. In some cases the positioning requirements are full-time, and in others it may be part-time. If you lie in the wrong position, such as face-up, pressure may be applied to other parts of the eye, causing further problems like cataract or glaucoma. When the gas bubble is in the eye the vision may be poor but as the gas bubble dissolves, the vision should improve. The final vision after surgery depends on how damaged the retina was before surgery.

Current indications for orbital surgery primarily aimed toward up cosmoses are thought of within the context of subspecialist orbital observe by associate degree medical specialist. Thyroid disease, orbital tube-shaped structure anomalies, and dermolipomas are common orbital diseases within the symptoms are often strictly cosmetic. correct anatomical awareness, operative scanning, management of medical factors as well as smoking and thyroid standing, and scrutiny techniques have all contributed to the aesthetic outcome of orbital surgery. The edge for activity rehabilitative orbital surgery has conjointly been down by public demand.

Orbital surgeons will thus supply the acquainted techniques, like orbital decompression, for pure cosmesis. Sensitive history taking and awareness of the psychological part are of dominant importance for the orbital medico WHO develops a cosmetic observe.

In its broadest sense, cosmetic orbital surgery encompasses craniofacial reconstruction and eyelid and periocular procedures, but this article only addresses the operations that are specifically performed on the orbit in oculoplastic practice. Any oculoplastic surgery carries risks associated with anaesthesia, bleeding, and infection, but orbital surgery incurs additional sight or life-threatening risks compared with preseptal procedures:

·         Optic nerve damage with visual impairment.

·         Impaired ocular motility inflicting visual impairment.

·         CSF leak, presumably resulting in infectious disease.

Lid Repair Surgery is a type of surgery that repairs droopy eyelids and may involve removing excess skin, muscle and fat. As you age, your eyelids stretch, and the muscles supporting them weaken. As a result, excess fat may gather above and below your eyelids, causing sagging eyebrows, droopy upper lids and bags under your eyes.  Lid Repair Surgery is performed when droopy or sagging eyelids keep your eyes from opening completely or pull down your lower eyelids. Removing excess tissue from your upper eyelids can improve your vision. Upper and lower lid blepharoplasty can make your eyes appear younger and more alert.

Blepharoplasty may be an option if you have:

·         Baggy or droopy upper eyelids

·         Excess skin of the upper eyelids that interferes with your peripheral vision

·         Excess skin on the lower eyelids

·         Bags under your eyes

Cataract surgery is a procedure to remove the lens of your eye and, in most cases, replace it with an artificial lens. Normally, the lens of your eye is clear. A cataract causes the lens to become cloudy, which eventually affects your vision.

Cataract surgery is performed by an eye doctor (ophthalmologist) on an outpatient basis, which means you don't have to stay in the hospital after the surgery. Cataract surgery can be done traditionally using ultrasound energy to remove the cloudy lens or it can be removed with laser-assisted technology. Cataract surgery is very common and is generally a safe procedure. Cataract surgery is performed to treat cataracts. Cataracts can cause blurry vision and increase the glare from lights. If a cataract makes it difficult for you to carry out your normal activities, your doctor may suggest cataract surgery.

When a cataract interferes with the treatment of another eye problem, cataract surgery may be recommended. For example, doctors may recommend cataract surgery if a cataract makes it difficult for your eye doctor to examine the back of your eye to monitor or treat other eye problems such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.

In LASIK, PRK, and similar procedures, laser energy reshapes the curvature of the eye's clear front surface (cornea) to alter the way light rays enter the eye. Artificial lenses surgically inserted into the eye also can refocus light rays to sharpen vision. And there are so many approaches to corrective eye surgery range from laser reshaping of the eye's surface in procedures such as LASIK and PRK to surgical insertion of artificial lenses to correct eyesight.

Glaucoma is a disease that damages your eye’s optic nerve. It usually happens when fluid builds up in the front part of your eye. That extra fluid increases the pressure in your eye, damaging the optic nerve.

Primary open-angle glaucoma the most common type of glaucoma. It happens gradually, where the eye does not drain fluid as well as it should , As a result, eye pressure builds and starts to damage the optic nerve. This type of glaucoma is painless and causes no vision changes at first

The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system and carries visual information from the eye to the brain. This cranial nerve is made up of over one million nerve axons, which are nerve fibre extensions of the retinal ganglion cells. When the eye pressure is increased and/or other inciting factors exist, the optic nerve becomes damaged and the retinal ganglion cells undergo a slow process of cell death termed "apoptosis." The death of the retinal cells and degeneration of the nerve fibers results in permanent vision loss. Early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma can help prevent blindness.

Optometry is the field involving virtually everything that has to do with eyes and vision, including examination, diagnosis and treatment of the eyes and surrounding structures, and the treatment of vision problems.

Doctors of Optometry (ODs), commonly known as optometrists, are independent primary health care professionals for the eyes. They are trained to evaluate a patient’s visual condition and determine the best treatment for that condition.

Loss of vision is considered sudden if it develops within a few minutes to a couple of days. It may affect one or both eyes and all or part of a field of vision. Loss of only a small part of the field of vision may seem like blurred vision. Other symptoms, for example, eye pain, may occur depending on the cause of vision loss.

Accurately diagnosing and treating a sick calf or operating on a tiny Chihuahua’s leg takes expert skill and advanced training. The presence of certain medical conditions can sometimes first be recognized by your Veterinary optometrist or veterinary ophthalmologist. An Veterinary ophthalmologist is a medical doctor (M.D.) specializing in wild and pet animals eye care. It is very important to have routine eye examinations even if your eyes seem healthy. By having a routine eye exam, not only will your optometrist or ophthalmologist help you obtain your best vision, but they can also detect many asymptomatic, yet treatable, eye diseases.