Ocular injuries/ Eye Trauma
Ocular trauma is second only to amblyopia as a cause of visual loss in the pediatric population. Injuries most commonly occur in adolescent boys while playing sports, the most dangerous being baseball and basketball. The approach to a pediatric patient may be different from that of an adult for several reasons. The history is often unreliable or unavailable and the mechanism of injury may be unknown. Examination of an injured eye can be challenging and almost impossible in the face of an inconsolable patient with an injured eye. The visual system is often immature, thus necessitating effort to restore visual development.3 Four basic principles should be adhered to when caring for a child with ocular trauma: management of life-threatening or central nervous system injury should always take precedence, structural integrity of the eyeball must be ensured, vision should be checked in both the injured and uninjured eye, and ophthalmologic consultation is an important resource.
- Ptosis: Congenital ptosis is often due to a malformation or lack of training of the muscle responsible for lifting the upper eyelid, the levator palpebrae superioris muscle.T he functions of the eyelid lifter must be measured. At the same time, the patient looks downwards at most with his eyes and then turns his gaze to a maximum. In doing so, the ophthalmologist measures the difference between the upper edge of the lid when looking down and looking up while blocking the frontal muscle so that it does not distort the result. In the Simpson test, the patient looks up for 60 seconds, which also lifts the eyelid.
- Myasthenia gravis: Myasthenia Gravis is a chronic neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness and rapid fatigue of skeletal muscle. Mostly, the muscle strength improves significantly by a short rest. The muscle weakness is due to a disruption of the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscle cells.